Before World War II, the word “Meteorology” was in common use for science of Weather. Even the scientific journal of USA which started in 1944, was called Journal of Meteorology. The name of this journal was subsequently changed to “Journal of Atmospheric Sciences” in the year 1962, while the serial number of the Journal continued as from 1944, the 1962 volume being numbered 32. This change became desirable because the development of Numerical Modeling in the field of Weather Forecasting during and after World War II necessitated additional increased emphasis on other sciences like Physics, Hydrodynamics, Numerical Analysis, Chemistry, Oceanography, Ionosphere, etc. Even the Department of Meteorology/Weather Bureau in USA was re-named, in 1970, as NOAA, standing for National Ocean-Atmosphere Administration. Presently, the word “Atmospheric Sciences” is preferred to the earlier word “Meteorology” in scientific circles. In its applications, the word “Atmospheric Sciences” is being extensively used for study of atmospheres of other planets and other heavenly bodies also.
Here, in this Book, the word “Meteorology” stands for “Atmospheric Sciences”.
Some Special Topics Treated in the Book
Among other subjects, this Book deals with special topics like History of Meteorology/ Atmospheric Sciences, ups and downs in the theory of Atmospheric Tides, problem climates which defy explanation in terms of conventional ideas on climate, climate change, Eliassen-Palm Fluxes, Monsoon of East Africa, meteorological features near Lake Victoria, Monin-Obukhov classical theory of Pressure-Wind adjustments applied to the tropics, Numerical Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, Arakawa-Schubert Scheme of cumulus parameterization, 30-50 day oscillation, ENSO, Eliot’s Standing Oscillation, Inertial Instability, Trapeze instability, Mechanics of satellite orbits, Principles of Remote Sensing, Mechanics of polar-orbiting and Geostationary Satellites, Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo System, Sun-Weather relationship, etc.
Synthesis of Synoptic and Dynamic Meteorology
Quite often, persons engaged in conventional synoptic chart analysis and weather forecasting keep away from dynamical equations and NWP models in the tropics; as also meteorologists engaged in NWP model work rarely appreciate the problems of operational Weather Forecasting in the tropics. This Book aims at providing an integrated approach (Synoptic Meteorology + Dynamic Meteorology) in Weather Forecasting for the tropics. Large variations in rainfall are accompanied by very small changes in wind and pressure fields, which changes are not accurately predicted by the current NWP models for the tropics. Quasi-stationary seasonal troughs and ridges of wind and pressure oscillate, in position and amplitude, around their mean values; their dominant periods of oscillation are around one day, near 5 days, and around a couple of weeks. They interact with strong westerly waves moving on the pole ward side of the sub-tropical ridge lines and also interact with weak Easterly Waves moving on the equator ward side of the sub-tropical ridge lines. These oscillations and interactions, along with strong solar insulation, cumulus heating, and also interaction with PBL are not easy to simulate through present numerical models and also not easy to identify through conventional synoptic chart analysis. An integrated approach through combination of Synoptic and Dynamic Meteorology is desirable and suitable for the Tropics.
The Author believes that many empirical as well as theoretical weather models in the tropics have loose ends. Attempt is made in the Book, to give historical account of the development of these various models, the observations on which these models have been constructed, the method of analysis of these observations and the assumptions made by the modelers. This should excite interest in improving the existing models. The author has lived through these developments. Special historical account is also given of some inspiring events in the history of meteorology like L.F. Richardson’s integration of NWP equations on the battle-front, bundling up of his papers in a charcoal bag, struggle of Charney and his collaborators in producing the first NWP forecast on the ENIAC Computer, the story of Milankovitch in formulating the quantitative theory of long-term climatic changes on the earth, etc. Genius flowers under a combination of inspiration and perspiration. History of such events inspires readers themselves to make history.